Richard Brice

Music Electronics - order your copy here or download Kindle editions from Amazon

"At 900 pages, Music Electronics is the most complete study of the applications of electronics to producing, recording and reproducing music ever written."

Music Electronics has just been reviewed in Sound on Sound magazine, read that here.

Here are a number of excerpts as medium-resolution PDF files. Please read and distribute as you wish.

Audio and other files to accompany the book are here

High resolution versions of many of the illustrations are available for download here.

Illustrations are provided in original resolution in two Zip files: one for Volume 1 and one for Volume 2. Right-click on the links to download. All illustrations are labelled: Fig [chapter number] _ [illustration number]. Thus figure 5 in chapter 12 is tagged Fig 12_5.

Music Electronics [Paperback in two volumes]

Richard Brice (Author)
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Book Description

Publication Date: 2nd January 2013

"At 900 pages, Music Electronics is the most complete study of the applications of electronics to producing, recording and reproducing music ever written. With its coverage of all things audio, Music Electronics is sure to find itself as a reference work on any studio bookcase. But, because it also functions as an approachable, introductory textbook to electronics, it will have wider appeal to anyone looking for a career in television and radio broadcasting; in the multimedia industries; in venue management and services; or in technical services and design for manufacturing."

Product details

Paperback: 894 pages (in two volumes)
Publisher: Transform Media (2013)
Language: English
Product Dimensions: 29 x 20 x 5 cm (2.5cm each volume)

Product Description

Publisher's Review

Richard Brice's Music Engineering attempts in its own way to cover the ground treated by introductory textbooks of the past, such as Marcus Graham Scroggie's famous Foundations of Wireless. Like Scroggie's book, it starts with the premise that is a fascination with the application which informs the curiosity in the technology. This two volume work thereby fulfils two roles: it is both a thorough survey of electronics techniques as applied to music, and an introduction to the subject of electronics itself.

The first volume deals with the foundations and in a few brief chapters we are taken from the theory of matter and Coulomb's force, through thermionic and solid state physics, to equivalent circuits and transfer functions. Although analogue theory predominates in the first volume, Brice categorically states in the preface that his intention is to move the reader swiftly towards a formal, system-level understanding of the subject because this has wider application in a modern recording studio dominated by software-based digital signal processing. Hence transfer functions, transfer characteristics and the Fourier transform are covered early on. Not that this should leave the impression that this is a highly theoretical and mathematical book. To be sure, maths is used relatively frequently, but the steps are well explained and an alternative, intuitive explanation is almost always given to the mathematical one. In addition, practical examples abound. In fact, Brice quotes Heaviside in believing that, "...the best result of mathematics is being able to do without it."

A couple of early chapters are devoted to the nature of sound which includes a useful section on building acoustics and the treatment of rooms, and to the physiology and psychology of hearing; the latter covering all the basic theory of Fechner's Law, of thresholds and JNDs (just noticeable differences) as well as pitch, phase and directional perception. Masking phenomena are covered thoroughly in preparation for noise-reduction and data compression techniques covered later in the book.

Music Electronics goes on to cover microphones and their applications, and Brice introduces for the first time classic examples of microphone technology from the past to illustrate and educate the various technologies involved. This is a format to which he returns in later chapters. In the case of microphones the list contains all the usual suspects from the famous ribbon mikes of the past to the Neumann and AKG classics to the de-rigueur moving-coils. More surprisingly, a few examples of modern, good-value microphones are covered to illustrate modern circuit techniques.

Following on from microphones and microphone techniques, over fifty of this book's large A4 format pages are devoted to valves and this technology, now more or less confined only to music applications, is covered in considerable detail; both in terms of the theory, with an original discussion on mathematical models for valves for circuit simulation, and in terms of practical data and design techniques. Basic circuit configurations are all covered: common-cathode; common-grid; and cathode-follower amplifiers. And more unusual configurations are also explained: the cascode; the SRPP and the long-tailed-pair. In each case, both mathematical and graphical design techniques and equations are given.

Following on from valves, an extended chapter is devoted to semiconductors and the reader is taken on a journey which leads from simple bipolar junction transistor circuit configurations, through two and three-stage discrete amplifiers, to integrated operational amplifiers. Once again, design techniques and information are comprehensively given. On the way, all significant solid-state components including power devices are introduced and the chapter concludes with a look at low-noise techniques and feedback theory.

The background completed, the book moves on a description of electric and early electronic instruments like the Telharmonium, the Theremin, the Trautonium and the Ondes Martenot. A sizeable, and original, section is devoted to the electric guitar with a thorough analysis of the signal generation mechanism and the interaction between pickups and with the amplifier. The chapter also encompasses thorough, technical explanations of the Hammond organ, the Fender Rhodes and the Mellotron.

Electronic effects are explained in their own chapter which includes everything from EQ to compression, to overdrive and fuzz, to pitch-shifting and correction, to echo and reverberation, the latter being comprehensively covered so that chambers, springs, plates are all explained and their peculiarities described. Here again, Brice has used examples of "classic" kit to illustrate important techniques, so in these chapters we meet everything from Pultec EQs and EMT plate reverbs to Altec Lansing limiters and UREI compressors.

The first volume finishes with a review of electronic music and synthesis. Here again, Brice uses illustrations from the classic instruments of the past to illustrate and explain various circuit techniques. Voltage control is comprehensively explained and how pitch, volume, dynamics and filtering are accomplished under its aegis.

The second volume moves on to the digital realm. Starting off with a chapter on MIDI and sequencing, the volume continues with three chapters dedicated to a thorough yet readable, account of: the nature of digital signals and their relation to their analogue cousins; of convolution and digital filtering; and of the discrete Fourier transform and its applications from everything from pitch-shifting and time-stretching to music recognition and audio data compression. Practical digital issues are covered from the numerical coding of signals and to the different families of digital integrated circuits and to clocked-data schemes. A description of modern FPGA devices and VHDL are also included, as are new techniques, such as delay-locked-loop clock regeneration. Computing and the development of microcomputers from the first microprocessors to the multi-core hyper-threaded machines found in the modern studio are described, as are the technologies of hard-drives, dynamic, static and flash RAM. The various standards for digital audio interfacing are presented and explained, including SPDIF, AES/EBU and MADI and hardware interfaces, from USB and SCSI to Firewire, are all described. The major digital audio file types, and even the cardinal digital tape recording formats, are briefly covered too, as are the CD, the SACD and the DVD.

Vinyl records and analogue tape are also covered in this volume in a chapter written, as Brice explains, to satisfy the enduring fascination with this technology in modern music making and its enduring legacy in the techniques of recorded music in the shape of tape-based music concrete techniques such as brassage and turntablism.

The author once again reveals his fascination in older, analogue technology when he comes to the chapters dedicated to consoles, amplifiers and loudspeakers. The famous, valve EMI REDD consoles are comprehensively explained, as are solid-state examples by EMI, Neve, Trident and Helios and each manufacturer's unique take on amplification and equalisation is analysed and described. Digital and software techniques are covered too.

In the two chapters on amplifiers, a distinction is drawn between amplifiers whose job it is to amplify accurately, and to instrumental amplifiers, whose job it is to enrich and sculpt the tone of the input signal. The chapter on the former covers all the basic theory on different amplifier topologies; including class-A, AB and B, current-dumping, as well as a description of modern class-G and class-D techniques. Even switched-mode power supplies are dealt with in the application of amplifiers to public address and to sound reinforcement. In each case, a classic example of technology is given as illustration. The latter chapter on guitar amplifiers waxes more lyrical, discussing and analysing examples from the early tweed Fenders, to Marshall and Vox, to models from the modern boutique amp' movement. Along the way, Brice attempts a daring analysis on why Dumble and Trainwreck amplifiers are so highly prized, and he presents a couple of genuine surprises in the shape of forgotten classics from Vampower and Gibson.

Loudspeakers of all types are covered including those for monitoring and for instrumental applications and sound-reinforcement. Electrostatic types are covered, as are horns. The coverage of enclosures covers the theory of design by analogy pioneered by Thiele and Small as well as discussing the resurgence of interest in electrically equalised baffles, in transmission-lines, labyrinths and in modern sub-woofer techniques. Classic drive units from Jensen, (Rola) Celestion and Altec Lansing are all described as are classic examples of finished loudspeakers from the BBC, B&W, Yamaha and Genelec.

Brice's specialist area in in signal processing for stereo and spatial sound. So, as the inventor of the FRANCINSTIEN stereo correction system, it is no surprise that this technology, its history and its theoretical and psychophysical justification is covered thoroughly, as are multi-channel and 3D sound technologies in two chapters. All the major stereo microphone techniques are unusually thoroughly covered as are microphone arrays for 5.1 sound and Ambisonics. Some new microphone systems and signal correction techniques are suggested too!

In the last chapter condenses Brice's knowledge of video techniques gleaned from a lifetime working in television, into a chapter which covers everything from the theory of scanned images and persistence of vision to digital picture compression techniques and practical issues for the musician such as synchronisation and of writing, performing and recording music for film and television.

With its coverage of all things audio, Music Electronics is sure to find itself as a reference work on any studio bookcase. But, because it also functions as an approachable, introductory textbook to electronics, it will have wider appeal to anyone looking for a career in television and radio broadcasting; in the multimedia industries; in venue management and services; or in technical services and design for manufacturing.

And here is a complete table of contents......

1 – Foundations

Origin of the elements
Compounds and bonds
        Ionic and covalent bonds
Electricity discovered
Electric field, potential difference and electric current
Conductors and insulators
The big current faux-pas
Simple electric circuit
Ohm's law
Kirchoff's Laws
Components, units and multipliers
Series and Parallel
Potential divider
Magnetism and Electricity - the Dynamic Duo
From generators to music
Current and voltage generators
AC circuits
        Practical transformers
        Impedance transformation
RMS values
Angular frequency
Complex numbers
LC circuits and resonance
Capacitances in series and parallel
Inductors in series and parallel
Transmission lines - or, when is a wire not a wire?
Electromagnetic waves
Electrical, mechanical and acoustical analogies

2 – Sound and music

The Physics of Sound
The Fourier Transform
        An intuitive explanation
        Digital Fourier Transform
The world of frequency
Building complex waveforms from sine waves
Frequency response
Signals in the time-domain and the frequency-domain
Music and acoustics
Resonance in air-columns, strings and bars
Music theory
Musical Ranges
Note names
Musical notation
Musical Scales and Temperaments
Consonance and dissonance
Pentatonic and Blues scale
The Harmonic Series
Theory of Harmony
        The major fifth
        The major third
        Minor seventh chords and the dominant seventh
        Ninths, elevenths and thirteenths
Measuring sound
        The Decibel
        Pressure amplitude and SPL
        Sound Intensity Level (SIL)
        Measurement of Sound Pressure Level (Sound Intensity Level)
        The Phon
        The Mel
Acoustical power required for realistic listening levels
Crest factor
Radiation of Sound
        Inverse square law
        Wave effects
        The Near and Far Field

3 - Hearing and acoustics

The Physiology of Hearing
The Psychology of Hearing
Weber's Law
Fletcher-Munson Curves (equal loudness contours)
Scale distortion
        Critical band
        Theoretical derivation of the masking curve
        Wideband masking
        Temporal masking
Perception of phase
        Group-delay perception
Effect of age upon hearing sensitivity
Noise exposure and hearing loss
Spatial Hearing
Building acoustics
Design of auditoria
Room modes
Reverberation, modal frequencies and the small room
Axial (first-order) eigentones for a small room
Measurement of reverberation
Acoustic treatment
Practical sound absorbers

4 - Microphones and their applications

Electrodynamic microphones
        Moving coil
Electrostatic microphones
Frequency response
Pressure or velocity
Pressure Microphones
Polar diagrams
Pressure Gradient or Velocity microphones
Cardioid microphones
Proximity effect or bass tip-up
Practical capacitor microphones
Dual-diaphragm capacitor microphones
Pressure Zone Microphone (PZM)
Microphone dynamic range
        Overload point
Classic microphones
        RCA 44
        Marconi Type A
        STC 4038
        RCA 77D and DX
        Neumann U47 and U48 microphones
                The elusive VF14
        The Neumann M49 and M50
        AKG Model C 12
        AKG 414
Radio frequency technique
Modern “classics”
        RØDE NT1A
        Modern microphone circuitry
        MXL R144 Ribbon Microphone

5 - Microphone Technique

Acoustic guitar and classical guitar
Electric guitar and bass guitar
Drum kit
Bass drum
Side drum (snare)
Rack-toms and Floor tom
Strings instruments
Violin and viola
Acoustic (Double) bass
String quartet
Woodwind instruments
French Horn(s)
Wind ensemble
The Brass - Trumpet and Trombone
Rock-music brass-section
Creating the stereo picture - panning
Stereo microphone techniques
        Spaced Omnis (A - B) technique
        Coincident (X –Y) technique
                Crossed eights or crossed cosine-microphones
        Crossed cardioids
        ORTF technique
The Decca Tree
Blumlein δ (or difference) technique or TIHM
Recording an orchestra

6 - Electronic systems

Active devices
Equivalent circuits
        Input and Output Impedance
Linear systems
Non-linearity and harmonic distortion
Intermodulation distortion
Differential equations
Bungee-jumping into differential equations
Solving differential equations
        Complementary functions
        Natural frequency
        Particular integral
How to avoid differential equations - or Fourier's big cheat
Transfer functions
        Magnitude of the transfer function
        Phase of the transfer function
        Higher order transfer functions
Noise, dynamic range and signal-to-noise
The Laplace Transform
Filter design
        Transforming the low-pass filter to other types
        Digital filters

7 - Valves or electron tubes

The Edison effect
Thermionic emission and the diode valve
Electrons inside the valve
        Space charge
Diode as detector
Modulation spectra
Diode as a rectifier
Invention of the Triode
Electron paths
Characteristic Curves
Development of Pentode and Beam Tetrode
Practical Valve Circuits
Equivalent circuit of a valve
Equivalent circuit of a pentode
Valve Parameters and design data
Common-cathode amplifier
        Unbypassed Rk
        Thermal noise in triodes
The common-grid (or earthed-grid) amplifier
Cathode follower
Long-tailed pair
Cascode circuit
Artzt circuit (a.k.a. the SRPP and the µ-follower)
Real-world valves
        The cathode and the work function
Commercially available valves
        Valve envelopes
        Small signal valves
                Low-noise pentodes
                        12AT7 (ECC81)
                        12AU7 (ECC82)
                        12AX7 (ECC83)
                        VF14(M) - the scarcest valve in the world!
Power valves
        6L6, 6V6, 807 and KT66 Dynasty
        Western Electric Type 212
Mathematical models for valves
        Pentode and beam-tetrode
        Pentode acting as a triode
Appendix – VF14(M) valve and possible equivalents

8 - Semiconductors

PN junctions
Hole current
Reverse leakage, PIV and avalanche (zener) diodes
The solid-state rectifier and the power supply
Reservoir capacitor
Ripple voltage
Regulation & rectifier forward-resistance
Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
Practical design
        Step 1 - Calculation of DC conditions
        Step 2 - Calculation of thermal stability
        Step 3 - Calculation of AC parameters
Equivalent circuit for the transistor
Different flavours
Emitter Follower
Darlington Pair
Field-Effect Transistor (FET)
        Junction FET (JFET)
Current sources and current mirrors
Long-tailed pair
Practical high-gain amplifiers
Low-noise design
Noise in a junction FET (JFET)
Negative feedback
        Effect on frequency response and distortion
        Sines and slews
        Practical operational amplifiers in audio
        From uA702 to uA741
The TL07x family
        The Signetics NE5534 and 5532 (dual)
        Exotic op-amps
        Discrete op-amps
What on earth is a root-Hertz?
Op-Amp Cookery
Power Transistors
Stability and compensation
Voltage regulation

9 - Practical issues – the laboratory, the workshop
and listening tests

        Electric shock
Good workshop practice
        Beware exploding capacitors
        Beware the guitar-amplifier mains-transformer
Electronics construction
        Tools of the trade
        Metalwork and woodwork
        Soldering iron
Test equipment
        Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO)
        Logic analysers
        Signal generator
        CD player as a signal generator
        Distortion meter and wave analyser
        Complete audio test-sets
        Digital audio analyser
Bench power supply
Software tools
        Circuit simulation - the virtual electronics laboratory
        Audio editor
Reading a circuit diagram
Practical Components
                What type of capacitor should I use?
                        1pF to 1nF
                        1nF to 1µF
                        1µF and above
Capacitor ESR
        Resistor colour-code
        Preferred values for resistors
Distortion in passive components
Listening tests, or do you have golden ears?
        Is there any validity in these ideas?
        Is it true that "nothing is transparent”?
Listening tests
        Sine waves are not music?
        You can hear what you can’t hear?
        Dynamic range
Useful reference information
        Table of useful physical constants
        Professional analogue-audio levels
        Semi-pro audio levels

10 - Electric instruments

Early experiments
The Singing Arc
Photo-electric instruments
Superheterodyning instruments
Ondes Martinot
The Trautonium and the invention of the relaxation oscillator
Electronic organs
Sine wave oscillators
        Wein-bridge oscillator
        Phase-shift oscillator
Non-sinusoidal oscillators or waveform generators
Practical instruments
Digital waveform generation
The Univox
The triumph of electromagnetism!
Electric Guitar
        Pickup placement
        The signals
        Frequency response
        Pick-up selection and tone controls
        Voicing and the importance of high-input impedance at the amplifier
The Hammond organ
The Hohner Clavinet
Electric pianos
Mellotron - the electromagnetic sampler

11 - Electronic effects

Equalisation (tone control)
        Bass-cut circuit
        Treble-cut circuit
        LR circuits
        Faster rates of attenuation
        Bass-boost circuit
        Treble-boost circuit
        Combined controls
         tone-control circuit
        Alternatives to inductors
        Wein bridge based mid-EQ
        Pultec EQP-1A
Echo and Reverberation
        Artificial reverberation - the echo chamber
        Artificial echo
        Spring reverb
        Plate reverb
        Convolutional reverberation
Treble Boosters
Pitch Shifting
Flanging, Phasing and Chorus
Ring Modulation
Dynamics Processors
Feed-forward and Feedback Compressors
Vari-mu compressors: the Altec Lansing 436 and the Fairchild 660 and 670
        Altec Lansing 436C
        EMI RS124
        Fairchild 660 and 670
FET Compressor - UREI 1176
Optical techniques
        Teletronix LA-2a
Expansion – Noise reduction
All-pass filters, phase-rotators and the Symmetra-Peak
Audio Enhancers
Talk-box Guitar Effect

12 - Electronic synthesis

Early electronic music
Elektronische Musik - the German School
        Karlheinz Stockhausen
        Louis and Bebe Barron
        The BBC Radiophonic Workshop
        Olson-Belar RCA sound sythesiser
        Moog and Carlos and the birth of commercial synthesisers
Modular synthesisers
        Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
        Voltage Controlled Filter (VCF)
        Envelope Generation and the VCA
        Attack – Decay - Sustain - Release  (ADSR) Generator
        Low Frequency Oscillator (LFO)
        Analogue Noise Generators
        Colours of Noise
FM Sound Synthesis
FM Theory
        Perceived fundamental
        Complex FM and feedback
        Fairlight CMI II and the Synclavier
Wavetable Synthesis and other Proprietary Synthesis Algorithms
Modern trends in synthesiser design
        Additive synthesis
        The "Analogue" Interface
        Physical modelling
        Functional physical modelling
        Re-circulating wavetable approach
        Waveguide filtering
        Granular synthesis
        Waveshape distortion synthesis

13 - Sequencers & MIDI

Raymond Scott and the history of the sequencer
Analogue Sequencers
        CV and Gate Control
The MIDI Specification
        Note-on and Note-off
        Channel Modes
        System Messages
        MIDI Timecode
        MIDI System-Exclusive Messages
MIDI Sequencing
        Sequencer Programs
        Sequencer Recording
Appendix - MIDI messages

14 – Analogue sound recording

Gramophone records (78s and LPs)
        Mechanical limitations
        Wow and rumble
        Falling wavelengths
        Tone-arm tracking
        Dust and scratches
        Pickup sensitivities and recorded velocities
Magnetic recording
        Magnetic Theory
        The Physics of Magnetic Tape
        Tape Speed
        Speed Stability
        Recording formats - analogue machines
        The Compact Cassette
        Dolby B
        Analogue Mastering
        Analogue Multi-track Tape Machines
Creative Uses of Tape
        Double Tracking
        ADT (or Flanging)
        Tape Looping
        Tape "Special Effects" - Musique Concrete

15 – Digital techniques

Sampling Theory and Conversion
The mechanism of sampling
        Digital to analogue conversion
        Aperture effect
Numerical coding of digital audio signals
The Discrete Fourier Transform
        Leakage and Windowing
        A practical example
        Fourier's Uncertainty Principle
Digital electronics
        Logic gates and functions
        Aristotle just got wired!
        Logic families
                TTL Logic
                ECL and LVDS
        Low Voltage Technologies
Circuits with memory
Digital-machine based representation of numbers
Binary arithmetic
Hexadecimal base
Bits and bytes
Beyond 255 and below zero
Sequential Logic and State-Machines
Signals and clocks
        Set-up and hold time
Parallel and serial presentations of digital data – the shift-register
Embedded clocks
RS232 and RS422
Microcomputers and microprocessors
        Hyper-Threading or Multi-Threading
        Operating system
Types of digital memory
        Flash memory
Field Programmable Gate Arrays
Delay-Locked Loop (and the Phase-Locked Loop)
Eye pattern

16 - Digital audio interfacing and recording

AES/EBU or IEC958 Type 1 Interface
The SPDIF or IEC985 Type 2 Interface
Practical Digital Audio Interface
TOSlink optical Interface (now IEC 60958 Type II Optical or optical SPDIF)
Transmission of AES3 Formatted Data by Unbalanced Coaxial Cable
MADI - Serial Multi-channel Audio Digital Interface
Data Format
        Scrambling and Synchronisation
        Electrical Format
        Fibre-optic format
USB as an audio interface
Digital audio recording
Digital audio tape recorders
        Rotating heads
        Digital Audio Stationary Head (DASH) Format
        Applications of digital tape recorders
        Digital Mastering
        Digital Multi-tracks
        Digital Audio Stationary Head (DASH) multitrack format
        Rotary Head Digital Multi-track Formats
Hard Disc Recording
        Random access
        Disc Drive Technology
        Data rates
        Hard Drive Interface Standards
                IDE Drives
                Fibre Channel
                FireWire Interface
        RAID 1 (Mirroring)
        RAID 2 (Bit Striping with error-correction)
        RAID 3 (Bit Striping with Parity)
        RAID 4 (Striping with Fixed Parity)
        RAID 5 (Striping with Striped Parity)
Audio Data Files
        WAV Files
        AIFF & AIFC
        SDII (Sound Designer File Format)
Compressed file formats
        AU Files
        MP4 and M4A
        MPEG-4 Audio Lossless Coding (MPEG-4 ALS)
        Raw PCM data
Compact Disc
The CD Rainbow
        Red Book
        Yellow Book
        Green Book, White Book and Blue Book
        Orange Book
        Track Structure
        Data rates and Picture formats
        Regional Codes
        DVD Recordable (DVD-R)
Solid-state recorder

17 - Digital Signal Processing

Introduction to Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
Digital Filtering
        Impulse response
        FIR and IIR digital filters
        Sinc response
        Frequency response
        Derivation of band-pass and high-pass filters
Designing digital filters
        Designing an FIR filter
        Designing an IIR filter
IIR filter design example
        A high-pass example
        Software tools
Limitations in digital signal processing
New techniques in pitch shifting and time-stretching
Audio and the PC
Hard-Disc Editing
Multi-track Hard-Disc recording
DSP effect and instrument Plug-ins
        VST, DirectX and AU
Software instruments
        Phrase Sampling
Mastering, duplication and replication
Mastering on the PC
Music recognition by machine
Data Compression Techniques
        Lossless Compression
        Intermediate Compression Systems
        Psychoacoustic Masking Systems
        MPEG layer 1 compression (PASC)
        Intensity stereo coding
        MPEG Layer 2 audio coding (MUSICAM)
        MPEG Layer 3
        MPEG-4 Part 3 ISO/IEC 14496-3 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC)
        Dolby AC-3
        Dolby E
        More about MPEG-4 Part 3 (ISO/IEC 14496-3)
                Audio Scenes
                Structured Audio
Digital Rights Management (DRM) and MPEG-21
        Audio Watermarking
                Least Significant Bit (LSB) Modification
                Low Level Tones
                Echo hiding
Asynchronous sample-rate conversion

18 – Stereo

Spatial sound
Spatial Hearing
Binaural Techniques
Two-Loudspeaker Stereophony
Blumlein's (intensity derived) system
Low frequency directional hearing
        Encode - decode
        HF imaging
        The loss of the Shuffler
Delay-derived stereophony - the Precedence effect or Law of the first wave-
Wave field synthesis (WFS) - Holographic stereophony
Sweet spot
Stereophony in large halls
An intermediate conclusion
Improving stereo
        Improving Image Sharpness by means of Inter-channel Crosstalk
        HF crosstalk compensation
Recent developments of the FRANCINSTIEN circuit
Appendix - The FRANCINSTIEN viewed as a head-shadow compensator

19 – Beyond stereo

Hafler circuit
5.1 multi-channel audio
        Baby Boom
        5.1 audio theory and practice
        The tyranny of the “Center"
        Microphone technique for 5.1 audio
Too many channels
Dolby Surround and Pro-Logic
Dolby Digital Surround EX
        Problems with Ambisonics
Roland RSS System & Thorn EMI Sensaura
OM 3D Sound Processor
        OM panning circuits

20 – Recording consoles

Standard Levels and Level Meters
        The VU Meter
        The PPM Meter
        PPM and VU ballistics
        Opto-electronic Level Indication
        Polar displays
Standard Operating Levels and Line-up Tones
        Digital Line-up
Sound Mixer Architecture and Circuit Blocks
System Architecture
        Input Strip
        Pan Control
        Insert points and Sends and Returns
        The Groups Revisited
        The Recording Console
        Direct injection and hum loops
Audio Mixer Circuitry
        Microphone Pre-amplifiers
        Phantom power
        Insert Points
        Equalisers and tone-controls
        Effect Send and Return
        Faders and Pan Controls
        Mix amplifiers
                A virtuous solution
        Line Level Stages
Mixer Automation
Digital consoles
        Digital Manipulation
        Digital Mixer Architecture
Classic consoles
        Attenuation networks and early microphone mixers
        Microphone mixers
        Telefunken and EMI REDD consoles
        REDD.37 / REDD.51 signal flow
        The Shuffler and Spreader
        Echo send and return
        EMI levels
        V72 Studioverstarker (Studio amplifier)
        V77 Mikrofonverstarker (Microphone amplifier)
        Eckmiller equalisation
                Amplifier A
                Amplifier B
                Amplifier C
                Neve 1073
                BA284 preamplifier

21 – Hi-fi and monitoring amplifiers

Class AB
Class-D, Class-G and Current Dumping
Amplifiers for High Quality Monitoring
        Valve Amplifiers
        Output Transformers
        Triode or Pentode
        Ultra Linear and Cathode-coupled Amplifiers
        Cathode-bias or fixed-bias
Semiconductor amplifiers
        Thermal Stability and Transistor Output Stage Protection
        Thermal Stability
        Output-Stage Protection
        DC Coupling
        DC Offset Protection
        Switch-On “Thumps”
Practical semiconductor designs
        John Linsley Hood's 10 watt, class-A amplifier
        The Quad 303 circuit
        Power Supply Regulator
        Zobel network
Current Dumping - The Quad 405
Valve output - transistor drive
Integrated power amplifiers
Parallel output devices
Bridge configuration
Class-G amplifiers
Class-D amplifiers
Digital amplifiers
Public address
Switched-mode power-supplies
High-voltage audio distribution systems and long-line PA

22 – Guitar amplifiers

Two Different Philosophies
The amplifier is part of the sound
The “sound” of valves
Interaction between amplifier and loudspeaker
Classic amplifiers
        Fender "Champ" (5C1)
        Fender "Deluxe" (5D3)
        Marshall - JTM45
        Vox AC15
        Vox AC30
        Vox T60
        Vox 7120
        Gibson GH-40
Matchless and the boutique amplifier movement
        Roland Jazz Chorus 120 (JC-120)
        Supro S6616
        Dumble and Trainwreck amplifiers
A couple of amplifier myths exploded
        Droop - power-supply issues in instrument amplifiers
        Cathode stripping and the "standby" switch
                Mute switch
DIY "Boutique" amplification - towards a personal aesthetic
        Choice of components
        The Electric-Road amplifier
                Chassis material
                Heater DC supply - the Schottky diode
Modern techniques
        DSP and Amplification
        Roland COSM

23 - Loudspeakers

Moving-coil loudspeaker
Infinite baffle
        Acoustical analysis of loudspeaker in an infinite baffle
Bass-Reflex enclosure
Analysis of equivalent circuits
        Mechanical analogies and the Theile-Small Parameters
Loudspeakers in pipes
Finite baffle
Bailey's Transmission-Line loudspeaker
Crossover Networks
        Active Crossovers
Thermal Effects
Loudspeaker equalisation
Motional feedback
Horn Loudspeakers
Line-array of loudspeakers
Electrostatic Loudspeakers
        Phase distortion and electrostatic loudspeakers
The Sub-Woofer and the Band-Pass Enclosure
“Subs” for sound reinforcement
Classic guitar amplifier loudspeaker drivers
        Jensen P10R (the Bassman Loudspeaker)
        Celestion G12, and the “Blue”
Classic moving-coil monitoring loudspeakers
        Altec Duplex loudspeakers
        BBC LS3/5(a)
        BBC LS5/8
        BBC LS5/9
        B&W 801 monitoring loudspeaker
        Yamaha NS-10
        Genelec 8050A
Room equalisation
Leslie Loudspeaker
        Impedance and efficiency

24 - Film, Video and Synchronisation

Persistence of Vision
Cathode ray tube and raster scanning
Television signal
        H sync and V sync
Colour Perception
Metamerism - the great colour swindle
Colour Television
        NTSC and PAL or "composite" colour systems
Analogue video interfaces
The transition to digital video
ITU-R Rec. 601 Description - General
        Timing Relationships
        Video Timing Reference Signals
        Clock Signal
        Filter Templates
Parallel digital interface
Serial Digital Interface (SDI)
High Definition Television (HDTV)
HDTV Standards
        720p/60 and 720p/59.94
Aspect ratio
Embedded Digital Audio in the Digital Video Interface
Embedded audio in HDTV
Video compression systems
        Frame by frame
        Fourier once again….
        The Quantisation throttle
Digital Visual Interface (DVI) and HDMI
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface)
Relationships between film and television frame rates
        Longitudinal Timecode (LTC)
        Vertical Interval Timecode (VITC)
        PAL and NTSC
        SMPTE Drop-Frame Timecode
        User Bits
MIDI Timecode, MIDI clocks and Song Position Pointers (SPPs)
        Quarter Frame message
        Full Frame
Synchronisation of Music to Picture
        Source music and underscore
        Spotting, Cues and Hits
        Music Spotting Notes
        Clicks, Streamers and Punches


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© Richard Brice 2012 - 2015. All rights reserved. Newnes, CYP other information by permission